Heavy construction equipment is a term used to describe heavy-duty vehicles that have been specially designed for construction works and more so those works that involve earthwork operations. These equipments are popularly known in other terms as construction equipment, earth movers or engineering vehicles.
These machines have been made to work alongside each other when performing a specific job because each has a special task. They utilize a principle of mechanical advantage found in simple machines only that it has the ability to multiple small efforts to an output force that is many times greater.
The idea behind the invention of these equipments began since the 1st century through an ancient roman engineer called Vitruvius. For a long time after this discovered the hand shovel was the only heavy machine known. Depending on the magnitude of work, it could either be moved by men for lighter jobs or by animals if jobs were heavier. The modern machines began in the 20th century as technology improved.
Any engineering equipment is usually comprised of five systems that have been incorporated into one machine. There must be an implement part, traction, structure, power train and a control and information part of the system. Implements are additives that have been modified to suit specific purposes. Common implements included a bulldozer blade, excavator bucket and stump grinder.
Traction refers to the tire or track system of the machine. It is responsible for movement or the machine in transporting different materials. The popular continuous rubber tires are useful only when transportation speed is needed. Most of these construction works need specialized tracts due to the heavy tasks they do. There are 3 classes of tracts that may be used depending on the task, there are tracks special for transport, slow moving tracts and for load and carry types.
The structure system refers to those parts of the machine that are responsible for connecting different parts of the vehicle, transmitting the force from the input effort to the magnifying system and finally the load and the parts that provide sources of attachment to implements that carry out the work.
The frame of a machine is what is responsible for giving the driver control to direct the machine towards the desired task. It has the steering piece and the articulation parts to the wheels as the major parts. There must also be a power-train system that comprises combustion engine and brakes. It forms the life to these machines by providing the mechanical energy.
The control and information part is mainly to provide direction and guidance the drivers on how to correctly operate the heavy construction equipment. Drivers to these facilities must be well trained and have vast knowledge especially because they deal with tools that are very expensive.